Survey of industrial parks of Ukraine. Prospects and industry readiness
The legislation of Ukraine defines industrial parks as a territory for the placement of industrial facilities, which is provided with the necessary infrastructure, has an area of 15 to 700 hectares and is managed by a management company.
Currently, 46 industrial parks have been created in Ukraine, of which only 16 are included in the relevant register.
At the same time, the right of ownership to the land plots on which the IPs are located has the following distribution:
The advanced countries have long understood that industrial parks are a promising scheme for the development of industry. For example, in Germany alone there are more than 200 such facilities, in the United States this figure has exceeded 400, and in South Korea there are 1,200. whole
Ukraine is not the first year developing mechanisms to work with such objects. However, several significant problems remain to be solved in the near future:
- Legislation. At the moment, the Verkhovna Rada did not adopt bills establishing tax breaks for industrial parks. The bills adopted as a basis propose the introduction of a special tax regime for industrial parks for a period of 10 years. In this case, the investment attractiveness of such industrial facilities will increase significantly. In the meantime, industrial parks fall under the general rules of paying taxes.
- Another important problem is the low investment attractiveness of the country as a whole. Instability in the country, corruption push away potential investors
- For industrial parks, infrastructure plays a big role. Unfortunately, outdated engineering systems, the unsatisfactory condition of the roads, the lack of the necessary volumes of water and gas, and the insufficient capacity of the power grids – this is what almost every industrial park in our country faces.
- The lack of a competitive market management companies. To date, only a few companies in the country have the resources and certain experience for the management of such facilities. Incorrect operation leads to significant losses and, accordingly, a decrease in return on investment and a slowdown or even complete cessation of the development of production.
At the same time, there are a number of indisputable advantages in Ukraine, which, with the right approach, will play a significant role in the development of industrial parks.
- Location Ukraine is located in the center of Europe, at the intersection of both water and road transport routes. The most profitable in terms of logistics at the moment Western, central and southern regions of Ukraine.
- Free trade zones with the EU, favorable trade agreements with other developed countries. The association with the EU and the revision of trade relations with the United States, Canada, and a number of Asian countries create very favorable conditions for the sale of goods produced in Ukraine.
- Cheap labor. Despite the significant outflow of labor abroad, in Ukraine there are a lot of inexpensive professionals with good qualifications.
This distinguishes our country from the example of some Asian countries, where cheap staff has an extremely low degree of qualification. Market experts say that when solving a number of problems and introducing tax breaks for industrial parks, Ukraine will be able to increase investment inflows by $ 1-2 billion a year. The most interesting areas of activity in this case may be light industry, agro-processing, pharmaceuticals and wood products. In conclusion, we note that Ukraine has every chance of becoming a leader among the countries of Eastern Europe in terms of the development of industrial parks. In addition to creating attractive objects for investment and development of production, it is necessary to develop the market of management companies, whose professional management could lead production to a new, efficient and innovative level.